Colloquially, THE TERM BEE IS MOSTLY REDUCED IN A SINGLE WAY, THE WESTERN HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA), BECAUSE OF ITS IMPORTANCE AS A CITIZENSIVE HONEY PRODUCER, BUT ALSO FOR THEIR DEPARTMENT. THE BEES ARE A VERY LARGE GROUP OF VERY DIFFERENT SPECIES. MANY OF THEM, ESPECIALLY THE SOLITARIAN LIVING, ARE COLLECTED UNDER THE TERM WILD BEES.
Since bees make a significant contribution to the conservation of wild and cultivated plants and their yields, their ecological importance is considerable; Bees are among the most important pollinators in the world. According to the environmental protection organization Greenpeace, the equivalent of their annual pollination work is around $ 265 billion worldwide. 
Their associated economic importance is also evident from the fact that in Germany, for example, around one million bee colonies are currently kept by over 80,000 beekeepers. With around 25,000 tons of honey per year, these cover around 20% of domestic needs. For a number of years, increasing so-called "bee deaths" have been observed. As a measure of beekeeping, the term does not refer to the death of individual bees, but to the colony losses of the honeybees. 
The buzzword hides very different phenomena: for example the disappearance of entire bee colonies in the middle of the season, especially in the USA ("Colony Collapse Disorder"), or unusually high winter losses (for example in Germany in winter 2002/2003). 
In principle, the symptoms observed by beekeepers, such as disorientation and inexplicable changes in behavior, can certainly speak in favor of pesticides as the cause of the CCD, since pesticides, especially insecticides from the neonicotinoid group, act as neurotoxins. These include Acetamiprid, Clothianidin, Nitenpyram, Thiacloprid, Thiamethoxam and Imidacloprid.
The latter is used as a "gaucho" in around 120 countries around the world with annual sales of over 500 million euros. A 2010 review for the United States found honey bees to be highly exposed to varroacides and pesticides used in agriculture. It is known that chronic exposure to neurotoxic insecticides and these in combination with other pesticides, especially fungicides, are harmful to bees.
A direct connection with CCD and decreased health of the bees requires further research. The same applies to the dangers of neonicotinoids when bees are exposed to them in low doses. While no single pesticide can in itself be ascribed to cause CCD, synergistic effects of several pesticides may contribute to damage to the health of bees. Here, too, the authors state that there is a need for further research.  The study itself states that the decline began immediately after the introduction of dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) in agriculture and has continued unabated since then. 
When thousands of bee colonies died in April / May 2008 in the Rhine Valley, the neonicotinoid clothianidin used as a seed dressing could clearly be identified as the cause.  As a result, the Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety stopped on May 15, 2008  the sale and use of initially eight seed treatment agents, the entire group of neonicotinoids - including a product from Bayer CropScience called "Poncho" - which contain this active ingredient , but lifted the suspension of the approval of four seed dressings on June 25, 2008 after the agents had been modified. 
According to a study published in March 2012, these pesticides lead in the smallest, non-lethal doses in a significant way to a misorientation and workers can no longer find their way into the beehive at home.  For years, the product "Gaucho" manufactured by Bayer, which is based on the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, has been under suspicion after a study by the French government in 2003 showed that imidacloprid can lead to the death of bees under certain conditions.   
In 2012, biologists at Harvard University published a study that found a direct link between imidacloprid and CCD. 15 out of 16 (94%) of the observed bee colonies died within 23 weeks, although some of them were exposed to very low doses. 
At the end of April 2013, 15 of the 27 EU member states, including Germany, decided to partially ban three controversial pesticides from the neonicotinoid group (clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam) in the cultivation of maize, sunflowers, rapeseed and cotton for an initial period of two years . Austria's Agriculture and Environment Minister Nikolaus Berlakovich, among others, voted against the ban.  The final decision rests with the EU Commission, which advocates a ban. 
According to an EASAC opinion published in April 2015, there is a debate as to whether honey bee colonies are affected by neonicotinoids. However, this overlooks the fact that the colonies are often very resistant to losses.   An EFSA opinion on clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam published on February 28, 2018 finally confirmed the risks for wild and honey bees in field applications.  This report is the basis for further approval decisions or restrictions. On April 27, 2018, the EU Commission passed a vote to ban the use of these three active ingredients in outdoor crops.  As early as May 5, 2018, 20 fields near Udine were confiscated due to bee deaths caused by pesticides. Their harvest is also destroyed.  According to a study published in September 2018 by Nancy Moran's group, glyphosate affects the intestinal microbiota of young honey bees by inhibiting the shikimic acid pathway in bacteria of the species Snodgrassella alvi and thereby killing them. As a result, a weakening of the resistance to harmful bacteria has been observed.  In Switzerland there was massive bee deaths in 2019 because pirimicarb from the Landi was contaminated with fipronil. 
The previous ecotoxicological risk assessments of pesticides were found to be inadequate by researchers. In order to counteract the sixth mass extinction in history, the risk assessments for chemicals would have to be reformed as soon as possible.  
# # #
Now for the Flow Hive prey with plastic honeycombs:
With every new beekeeping invention, bee health has decreased Honeycombs are much more than just a Tupperware box for lunch; they are the skeleton and framework of the bee colony and fulfill many functions there. The cell wall is only 0.07 mm thick and the wax consists of over 300 different chemical compounds. It draws toxins from the honey. The resonance frequency (230-270 Hz) of the honeycomb corresponds to the vibration sensors of the bees and therefore acts as a communication channel between bees sitting at different ends of the honeycomb. The bees even control the temperature of the cell edges so that this type of information transfer works optimally. The wax also stores information about pheromones that the bees secrete. The smell and properties of the honeycomb help the bee colony to organize itself. The wax supports the ripening process of the honey and forms the first protective shield against pathogens. Honey bees are therefore able to perceive even the smallest changes in the composition of the wax for good reason. Wax is not a polypropylene plastic. … Over the past 100 years, bee health has declined with every new beekeeping invention. This is mainly due to the fact that most inventions are aimed at optimizing the honey yield and / or suppressing the natural behaviors of the bees. The Flow Hive makes no difference. Honey is both a blessing and a curse to bees. Jonathan Powell, England It is the bees' birthright to be able to build honeycombs themselves Bees want to build their own wax honeycomb. These are part of the superorganism "Bien". They literally create the wax from their own bodies. The honeycombs are the bees' home, their communication system (which doesn't work nearly as well when it's made of plastic instead of wax, as studies show), and function as a central organ. The honeycombs are the bees' wombs, they are the place where they raise their offspring. And if they had a choice, the bees wouldn't want a pre-made plastic uterus, plastic house, or plastic pantry - any more than we do. It is the bees' birthright to be able to build their own honeycombs. But that is not all. The other problem we have with this new apparatus is that it results in a type of beekeeping that is focused only on the beekeeper and that gives the impression that caring for the bees is very simple. It's not just about the Flow Hive, by the way. What we are actually talking about here is the largely industrialized and profit-oriented approach of beekeeping (for example in Langstroth magazine), where productivity is placed above ethics and long-term bee health. Kirsten Bradley, Australia.
# # #
Honey bee, beehive & book scorpion
THE BOOK SCORPION IN THE HIVES OF THE WESTERN HONEY BEE
The book scorpion (Chelifer Cancroides) - formerly also known as the mite wolf - belongs to the class of arachnids (arachnida) and to the order of the pseudoscorpions. It is the most common pseudoscorpion. Currently about 3000 species of pseudoscorpions are known worldwide, about 100 from Central Europe. Different types of pseudoscorpions are found in beehives and beehives in different regions of the world. Some Ellingsenius species in the southern hemisphere have specialized in honeybees and are only found in bee colonies.
The book scorpion is a beneficial insect for bees and beekeepers The book scorpion (Chelifer Cancroides) feeds on parasites of the bees in bee hives and thus proves to be beneficial for honey bees and beekeepers. The bees let him go. I have already succeeded in permanently settling the sensitive animals in hives. I can also use IR recordings to prove that the shy animals are approaching the bees and feeling them.
Unfortunately, I have not yet been able to prove that a Varroa mite has been picked. But regardless of that, they are a welcome guest in the beehive! Book scorpion catches Varroa mite and sucks it out, more videos here Are Book Scorpions Effective in Fighting Varroa?
There are a number of indications that suggest effectiveness. There is also evidence in old literature that suggests that the book scorpion was specifically removing the varroa from the honey bees. The old and new hints about the extermination of parasites in the beehive of the western honey bee by the book scorpion are listed below:
Ludwig Koch: "Clear presentation of the European chernetids (pseudoscorpions)", Nuremberg, 1873 The first mention of the book scorpion as a roommate of honey bees can be found in the literature in 1873 in "Clear presentation of the European chernetids (pseudoscorpions)" by Ludwig Koch. He gives houses, insect boxes and mainly beehives as sites.
Alois Alfonsus: "The enemy of the bee louse", Deutsche Illustrierte Bienenzeitung, 8th year, pp. 503-506, 1891 In 1891, Alois Alfonsus wrote a short article about the discovery of these insects in beehives and their hunt for bee lice and other small insects such as mites and dust lice.
Dr. Josef Fahringer: “Observations about some inhabitants of beehives”, Bienenvater 57, pages 83-84, 1925 The strongest evidence of the reading of mites from the body of bees by book scorpions was provided by Dr. Josef Fahringer through his experiment in 1925. He filled the body of honey bees with mites that he had previously taken from the body of bumblebees. By giving the bees a food solution, he calmed them down. Now he directed book scorpions with light to the resting bees. After a short time he was able to observe the removal of mites from the workers by the book scorpion. With my infrared video recordings in beehives, I can prove that book scorpions approach and feel the bees without fear, even under natural conditions. The bees let them go.
Zoltán Örösi-Pál: "Afterscorpions (Chelonethi) in the honeybees apartment", Journal of applied entomology, Volume 25 pp. 142-150, 1939 In 1939, Zoltán Örösi-Pál gave a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge on the subject of pseudoscorpions in bee dwellings around the world. He writes that pseudoscorpions can usually be found on the cover boards, the oilcloth, the frame strips, the walls or on the bottom of the box. He had never seen her on the honeycomb. I can confirm this observation, and I have never seen book scorpions walking over honeycombs either. I usually find them on the upper girders and on the bottom of the hive. Nest building Chelifer Cancroides Fig. 4 The book scorpion builds a nest in a beehive with integrated straw chambers He further writes that
And no brood nest was found in beehives. On this point we are further today (Fig. 4). In the meantime I have managed to settle the shy animals permanently in beehives. This is possible through suitable constructions with outer walls made of straw, additional insulation made of straw or, for example, a D-lid with straw filling. Fig. 5: Book scorpion with wax moth caterpillar, from “Afterscorpions in the honeybee's apartment” by Örösi-Pal, 1939 In 1939, Örösi-Pál describes the general opinion at the time that the book scorpion even eats mites and other small creatures on the bees.
He found in his own experiments that the book scorpion sucks the caterpillars of the large wax moth, provided they are not larger than 1 cm (Fig. 5). I can also confirm this statement through my own observations in beehives and through tests under laboratory conditions. I was also able to watch the book scorpion attack much larger caterpillars. Obviously, the effect of its poison is not enough to paralyze larger prey. He releases his victims after a while if the desired paralysis does not set in or if the resistance is too violent due to the lack of paralysis (Fig. 6). Fig. 6
The wax moth larva defends itself violently and whirls the book scorpion around Örösi-Pál closes his report with the realization that pseudoscorpions have never been seen to have a harmful effect on honeybees. It is not known whether pseudoscorpions read mites and bee lice under natural conditions from the bees' bodies.
Because of the consumption of mites, wax moth larvae, fallen bee lice and other small beehive creatures, pseudoscorpions are useful. Due to the limited number of pseudoscorpions in apiary, their use has no practical significance.
Dr. Max Beier: "The book scorpion, a welcome guest of the bee colonies", Austrian beekeeper, Jhg. 1, 1951, pp. 209-211 The article by Dr. Max Beier from 1951 "The book scorpion, a welcome guest of the bee colonies". He also describes its usefulness in exterminating various parasites in the beehive. Without citing new sources or evidence, he suggests that the book scorpion reads parasites directly from the bees. Presumably he is referring to Fahringer's experiments. His description of how the animals see is informative:
“He does not orient himself with his weak eyes, which are hardly suitable for seeing images, but with the help of long, straight whisker hairs, which in the adult animal sit in 12-fold number on the scissor fingers and due to their flexible deflection in large beakers respond even to the slightest movement of air, so that they are with a certain right called auditory hairs. ”I can confirm with my video recordings that they use their tentacles to“ see ”.
It becomes particularly clear when they are in a gap with their bodies and use their tentacles in a manner similar to periscopes on submarines (Fig. 7). Before they leave a crack they stretch a tentacle into the room and "look around". Fig. 7 Book scorpion uses "auditory hairs" on tentacles for orientation, screenshots from infrared images from beehives He goes on to describe how the book scorpion numbs his victims, pricks them on the mouth with his jaw scissors and lets gastric juice flow into the wound.
He then slurps up the meat parts liquefied by the gastric juice and consumes them. In Figure 8 I have recorded this observation under the microscope, described by Max Beier as early as 1951. Fig. 8 Book scorpion catches the Varroa mite and sucks it out Unfortunately, I have not yet been able to observe the phoresia described in the article. Beier writes that book scorpions can be found, especially during swarming, who hold onto a leg or other part of the bee's body with their palp scissors and can thus be carried along in flight.
This behavior - a kind of migratory instinct - is triggered by the unrest in the bee colony shortly before swarming. According to Beier, it is always pregnant females who are encountered as air passengers and in this way ensure the spread of the species. In his article, Beier describes how pregnant females lay up to 20 eggs, the construction of the breeding and molting nests, the hatching and the development of the young.
Finally, he dedicates himself to the Ellingsenius species occurring in beehives in the southern hemisphere, to which he attaches a more important role as vermin eaters and health police in the beehive than the book scorpions indigenous to us. Book scorpion sucks wax moth larvae Book scorpion with wax moth larvae Book scorpion sucks red bird mite Book scorpion with red bird mite Book scorpion with predatory mite scorpion with predatory mite
Book scorpion with varroa miteBook scorpion with varroa mite
Dr. Peter Weygold: "Moss and Book Scorpions", Neue Brehm Bücherei Wittenberg, 1966 In 1966 the book “Moos- und Bücherskorpione” by Dr. Peter Weygold. To this day it is the most comprehensive description of these small scissor carriers in German. Unfortunately, he does not consider the life of the book scorpions in beehives any further and only mentions this connection in passing.
Barry Donovan & Flora Paul: "Pseudoscorpions: the forgotten beneficials inside beehives and their potential for management for control of varroa and other arthropod pests", Bee World, issue 86, 2005 In 2005 the article appeared in a Bee World issue: "Pseudoscorpions: the forgotten beneficials inside beehives and their potential for management for control of varroa and other arthropod pests".
The question is whether the Chelifer Cancroides (the book scorpion), which has been forgotten in Europe, and other pseudoscorpions related to it are suitable for combating varroa mites and other parasites worldwide.
According to the authors, the book scorpion has been forgotten in Europe because it has rarely been found in modern prey systems. They suspect the reason for this is the displacement of log hives and straw baskets by magazine hives with their movable frames, made of smoothly sawn wood.
After the emergence of the varroa mite in Europe, the chemical treatment in the beehives should have finally driven the book scorpions out of the beehives. The authors suggest that at least some species of pseudoscorpions could prove to be effective control agents of varroa and other honey bee pests if they are present in hives in sufficient numbers.
Torben Schiffer: "Biological investigations on honeybees-associated pseudoscorpions (Chelifer cancroides)", state examination in biology, 2008, University of Hamburg In 2008, elementary school teacher Torben Schiffer took up the topic in his state examination paper. In the work he largely reflects the findings / views of Donovan & Paul. Through his commitment and his media presence, he helps the scissor bearers to become well known, even beyond beekeeping.
Ron van Toor et al .: "Ingestion of Varroa destructor by pseudoscorpions in honey bee hives confirmed by PCR analysis", Journal of Apicultural Research 54 (5): 1-8, 2016 In 2016, Ron van Toor uses DNA analyzes to document the consumption of varroa mites in conventional magazine hives by book scorpions.
The consumed mites could, however, have fallen naturally and have already been withdrawn from the reproduction cycle. It is therefore no proof of the effectiveness of the book scorpions in the fight against varroa.
Hans-Jürgen Ratsch et al .: "Book scorpions as Varroa fighters", final report on the research project of the Integrated Comprehensive School List and the student company Apiculture e.G., 2018 The test series “Book scorpions as Varroa fighters” from 2018 makes hope that the book scorpions will be effective. Here, a lower natural mite fall in wooden hives with book scorpions compared to wooden hives without book scorpions is found. The authors see this as proof of the effectiveness of the book scorpions. I do not think so. The mite fall was only counted weekly, this harbors the following possible falsification: Since the book scorpions prefer to stay on the bottom of the hives, it is very likely that they have removed living mites from the board, which later counted as dead natural mite fall without their intervention would have been. So fewer mites are counted than actually fell.
Such mites, which fall alive (partially injured) on the board, have already been withdrawn from the varroa reproductive cycle in the bee colony; their elimination by the book scorpion is of no use in terms of varroa control. In order to rule out this falsification, one would have to check the control boards much more frequently, perhaps even several times a day. A clearer indication of the effectiveness of the book scorpions is the established lower mortality of the peoples with book scorpions.
The number of peoples examined is, however, too small to prove the effectiveness of the book scorpions. Build beehives yourself for the integration of book scorpions Book scorpions can easily settle in the lid or bottom of the prey. They prefer to be above or below the beehive. Above the beehive, there is a D-lid with a straw filling. The addition of smaller pieces of deadwood is helpful. The bottom of a hive with book scorpions should be closed. Here you can, for example, fill a honeycomb with straw and dead wood. Locations and breeding of book scorpions The best place to breed book scorpions is certainly the environment of naturally kept animals that are plagued by small parasites.
Beehives are the perfect place with appropriate modifications / additions to the hive (provided the bees are kept untreated). Chicken coops, hay lofts and grain stores close to animal stalls also have excellent conditions. If you want to breed them in separate boxes away from these places, you have to reproduce the same conditions in them.