TOPten 4Bikes 
 and solar-powered cargo trailers 
Not buffalo-drawn carts with heavy, large wooden wheels have China and
India dragged into modernity, no, carrying the myriad loads of carrying
bicycles(and in part lead to today) this era.  
These patent-free suggestions  TOPten4Bikes  are given especially to bicycle manufacturers and their suppliers.
1.) In the rest lies the power
A classic "upright wheel" challenges us from a grueling, over-curved sitting and working posture; and recumbents position their rider too close to the tarmac.
However, a  e.g. 60° sloping backrest provides a comfortable and optimal supporting posture; With it, active pedaling becomes more powerful, more efficient and you stay relaxed. Leaned sitting conveys an anatomically supportive support with ergonomically optimized pedaling. It also makes cycling in this sitting position safer.
      Advantages of comfortably ajar seating:
* With the center of gravity displaced to the rear, you do not crash headlong over the handlebars in the event of a collision or faulty braking.
* A safety belt adds real protection. The belt is e.g. anchored to the tubular frame of an expanded metal shell backrest.
* A so executed rest protects best in an accident the head area, the shoulders and the hips and makes a helmet obsolete.
2.) Ow, my butt
Especially on longer trips conventional saddles are actually quite uncomfortable.
A saddle can also be formed from two elongated, good seat bidding buttocks, which are mounted side by side on an axle.
These accomplish the bouncing pedaling motion of the driver. Such a "rocker saddle" increases - for ladies as well as for men - the seat comfort - by its noticeable relief in the sensitive crotch area.
3.) Additions to the drive - rocking instead of cranking  
Other inventors tried something similar with all kinds of mechanical detours. These turned out to be rather "stair climbers" and they did not result in any noticeable improvement.                                                                                  My approach: the left-hand pedal crank is fitted with a freewheel around its square eye. 
effective freewheel. Thus each lever is freewheel-independent (there is already a freewheel in the rear hub).  
Furthermore, the lever arms mounted here pointing forwards have a short piece of steel cable attached to their first third. At the ends of these cables, a sufficiently long intermediate piece in the form of a wheel chain is inserted to connect the lever arms. The wheel chain is guided over a freely rotating sprocket anchored to the seat tube.
This enables a synchronous leg dynamic in which the non-working leg is lifted quasi automatically to be ready to step again. This simple change turns the pedal crank into a lever rocker.
For the purpose of this "leg lifter", the delicate chains used on every gear hub as a connection between the gear cable and the inner pin of the hub are sufficient - according to their lower stress. These chains can therefore also be ordered by the metre. The sprocket that is adapted to the chain should have a ball bearing connection to the seat tube pin. 
The seat tube pin carrying the sprocket can be welded on at a suitable height or fastened by means of its sleeve and a hose rubber nut.
The whole thing is covered by a mudguard; (and all this is maintained as needed, together with the large drive chain, using graphite spray or chain oil).
An optional e-drive would preferably be installed here as a rear hub motor.
* A direct, highly efficient pedal conversion with correspondingly higher speed performance can be achieved via step rocker.
* With the previous cranking, 2/3 empty travel is without propulsion. Here, on the other hand, only the third doing the work is operated.
* Even standing stepping - i.e. using one's own body weight - is possible here with less effort than when pedalling in circles on the crank.
* Short intermittent rocking pauses can be taken at will. The freedom from dead centre allows - similar to before - a free distribution of strength.  
This also inspired me to develop a simple, mechanically uncomplicated ...
         3. a) ... Pedal gear shift
For this purpose, the pedal is screwed to a sliding sleeve which can be moved along the outer 2/3 of the lever arm. 
Lateral, there is a shaft relief coupling between the lever arm and the sliding sleeve. A selected gear is pressed against the clutch relief by a curved leaf spring installed opposite it. This prevents the pedals from shifting unintentionally.
To change gears, the instep of the feet presses outwards sideways; for this purpose, there is a short nose on the outside of the pedals. The leg now freely selects the optimal gear. 
Finding the desired gear ratio is easy to practise and become independent.
         The advantages of this gear system are: 
* It offers the simplest direct selection of the right gear ratio. 
* Especially as a "rocker" it is a fully-fledged gear shift. In combination with the front three chainrings, the relief-shifted five (optionally three) selectable gears unfold an optimally spread overall transmission ratio for both hilly and flat riding.  
* The device has a total weight of only approx. 350 g. It eliminates the need for a number of individual parts - sprocket set, gear lever and cables - as well as the complete derailleur (derailleur) or the entire hub gear.
* It also offers the possibility of replacing a defective freewheel or bottom bracket bearing.

* Retrofit kits (optionally with step rocker) would probably be an instant sales hit, as they fit all 4-sided bottom bracket axles.


Wave of two-piece cranks.
Currently, crank systems have gained acceptance in which the shaft is no longer firmly attached to the bottom bracket, but to the right crank arm. The bearings are screwed to the frame or pressed into it. The shaft is then simply pushed through and bolted to the left crank arm. The advantages of this system are a larger support span and thus longer bearing life and easier disassembly or assembly.
4.)  One fahrRAD - for two-forces     
This tandem/single version has a slightly stretched frame construction on which a second leaning saddle can be placed. Its lever arms are extended beyond the pedalling axle point. There, they can be operated by the second rider, via his or her attachable pedals/slip sleeves, with the same shifting capability. 
For single rides, the second pedals and second saddle are simply left at home. 
Ist möglicherweise ein Bild von Fahrrad und außen

 From: RareHistoricalPhotos - facebook 

This version opens up the development & market proofing of a creative lightweight tandem/single bike! 
The fram-outfit would remain the concrete design result of the respective bicycle manufacturer.
5.) In heat and rain
Who likes to ride a bike in the rain or in high heat? Hardly anyone !
The fact is, our city, cargo and touring bicycles only offer high driving comfort every day if they protect us from wet or direct sunlight. An attachable protective roof would encourage you to leave the car more often in the garage. Maybe some people change to a bike.
A horizontal weather protection roof protects against the sun and rain. On the other hand, as a photovoltaic foil stretched on the aluminum roof frame or as a roller blind, it also supplies a considerable part of the drive energy.
The electricity generated on the roof is fed into the solar battery integrated in the bike frame (InTube). The approx. 150 / W PV foil * harvests daylight electricity all day long, even in diffuse weather conditions.
The approximately 1.1 m² roof generates about the energy of a medium-long driving distance.
The lightweight, removable roof is wind-slippery; because even changing winds are actually flat. In a longer test phase, I drove such a problem - even with strong gusts of wind.
For retrofitting such a roof - behind the saddle-backrest or on the handlebars clickable - always a profit.
The four roof corners optionally contain the flashing lights of a turn signal. The lights supplied by the battery should - due to the dangers in today's traffic density - be supplemented by a brake light. The reliable on / off switching of the night lighting should be done by a twilight sensor.
The ~ 60 x 180 cm large roof can be moved about 60 cm forward in the rain and ensures that everything stays dry.
A wind- and visibility-permeable net-store protects against rain as well as from strong lateral sun. If necessary, it is fastened to the roof frame by means of Velcro. The store has a lead band at the lower hem and hangs sufficiently low at about 55 cm. Frame and foil can roll u./od. be constructed foldable.
Sporty cyclists might also like this top hatch without electric drive (covered with Perlon fabric instead of PV foil, it only weighs about 700g) **.
6.) The small cargo
The area behind the sloping backrest provides space for luggage or even for one or two child seats.
Also conceivable would be a lightweight, removable and lockable expanded metal basket with hinged lid, which can be pushed after shopping like a travel case on four castors, with a light hand. This basket could also be made of plaited willow as a practical 4-wheel trolley.
The child seats would be attached with the same click fastener; they might have a pair of wheels located on both sides of the seat and a guide handle which can be pulled out of the backrest. So the seat would a buggy after the ride to the children.
On the steering shaft is e.g. the KLICKfix carrier is ideal - luggage stays centered on it. 
       6.a) fahrRad or e-bike with a heavy-duty trailer
This is a low loader trailer which is steered via the bike or fahrRAD. It provides CO²-free delivery services, possibly also taxi services, and is especially designed for today's climate.
This 2.9 m long trailer travels on a 125 cm wide track and weighs approx. 115 kg, witha load of 800 kg.
Right behind the drawbar, which can be raised, two 35 cm large twin wheels – with their turntable base to the load space – take some load off the bike - fahrRAD.
The freight weight is distributed over eight wheels including two 60 cm twin rear wheels.
Four synchronous recuperation hub drives take over the idle as well as the load operation. Their performance would be limited to a max. designed to move a load of 900 kg. The energy recovered from the movement is optimally kept in high-performance storage capacitor banks for subsequent start-up - that are still to be developed (possibly with Zehus).
The e-motors should have a 3 km / h slow return gear and a 5 km / h first gear for solo tiller hand guidance.
The four recuperation-synchronous rim brakes allow driving at 25 km / h at full load and up to 45 km / h at idle or part load.
Instead of a rear-view mirror, the trailer has a rear camera; this shows the driver what is going on behind.
The extra deep and 3.6 m² large loading area consists of 16 mm plywood. The spring suspension takes place via 10 compression springs that connect the frame to the loading area.  
With a track width of 125 cm, the 170 cm high body withstands lateral wind. The side tarpaulins remain rolled up in strong winds and low freight weight. The structure  offers space for 3 pallets of goods on a 6 m³ loading space.
The trailer is bridged in a U shape with the 1.7 m high roof frame made of large-mesh welded mesh. Everything is covered with a solar fabric film (e.g. made by manufacturers Alwitra or Heliotek). The cargo is also protected from the side by tarpaulins. They are opened or closed by means of special e-roller blinds and at the same time they pull the zip fastener on the sides. In addition, the load is secured with tension belts. This covering provides sufficient energy via its 12 m² photovoltaic surface - even when it is cloudy.
Batteries are accommodated in the chassis of the trailer for long transport routes; they are inserted into their own subjects there. These batteries provide sufficient travel reserves and are recharged with a cable.
      6.b) The trailer can also be converted into a family carriage or comfortable camping tent::
The carriage (or the taxi) has up to 4 plug-in seats for passengers - 2 to 3 people each. They are made of felt-covered, light plywood seats on a metal frame. With three rows of seats, the trailer still has space for 1 or 2 pushchairs. You can enter from both sides; there is a 1 x 0.6 m window on the front and rear; The PV tarpaulins on the side also provide an all-round view for a maximum of 12 people during a journey thanks to integrated windows made of film.
On cold days, gentle quartz heaters provide warmth for the passengers.
The attachable side folding walls made of light multi-wall sheets result in a 12.4 m² living / sleeping level for when in tent mode. When the walls are opened, the tent opens, with four arching clips opening at the same time. Then adjust the four corner supports - done!
Now everywhere is a nice camping lot or a free parking space! With its own electricity, solar ink and of course with an organic composting toilet, the wide world can now be traveled even on a budget.  
Every e-bike can be coupled up to this trailer. Either as a trailer, or as a carriage for the whole family or for 
urban or rural delivery services and taxis - this "packhorse" facilitates emission-free transport services based on 
independent companies.
7.) Airless tire?
My idea of a new type of tires made of harder rubber compound requires neither the usual rim bead wire nor fabric inserts, neither a hose nor internal air overpressure. These types of tires already spring through their thick-walled hard rubber cross-section profile (see drawing). In the case of higher loads, these tires can still inflate accordingly. The extra-deep loading area and large disc brakes allow a top speed of 25 km/ h. 
In addition, a small-finger, medium rolling bead offers the perfect minimized rolling resistance. The sideways, wide, on Gripp optimized, wide auxiliary beads roll only in an inclined position in contact with the ground. Inflating and "patching pecking" are eliminated in this nock-resistant model.
For tire mounting, these bike tires have a two-piece "screw-on rim", which ensures a perfect and form-fitting tire seat.
And on top of that, the wire and fabric-free material is unproblematic in recycling and recyclable as granules!
Especially on rough terrain and when transporting loads, these tires are durable and require little repair.




8.) Hand guards


In order to avoid common microtraumas in the wrist, a cylindrical, elastomeric pipe plug connection could be embedded in the steering handles or their transitions to the steering bracket in order to mitigate impacts. This stiff-elastic bridge could be available differently depending on the weight of a person or recessed differently deep.




9.) Laboriously storing a RAD was yesterday ...


Back-friendly side effect of the newly conceived bicycle: the rear wheel can optionally be given an effective shock absorption with 12 conical fiberglass arch springs or steel leaf springs instead of conventional spokes. Because other common shock absorbers for the front, rear or on the seat post make a bike more expensive. With this approach, due to the given center of gravity close to the rear wheel, damping is sufficient (prams can also be equipped with such wheels in principle).




10.) Long finger lock


With a long steel cable lock that can be pulled out of the frame, the bike can be attached and secured against theft. A second quick immobilizer would be just as practical and practical.


It should be possible to secure the steel cable lock, battery, storage basket and solar roof with just one key. It would be even better to have a handheld transmitter lock - which, as is the case with cars for a long time, locks everything centrally.



Conclusion: As an innovation bike, this fahrRAD would not be "just a good weather bike" and would soon be popular on the market. It should - through the increased security and multi-range capability - enrich the bicycle industry positively! The innovations can be used individually.


* A cargo bike e.g. gives the deliverer work and is useful against urban smog and traffic jams.


* These fahrRAD additions would help to further reduce traffic and climate.


* This bicycle could also be constructed as a tandem, TAXI or family carriage.



Concrete frame designs arise depending on the type of use and personal design creation by a fahrRAD manufacturer.



* Create PV films e.g. Alwitra-Evalon cSi ®, FirstSolar®, Nanosolar ® - or Heliatek ®.


** USB plog, navigation system integration and a hands-free system, combined with the charge level, mileage and speedometer display, in a foldable and removable display (in addition to a wide rear view mirror) in the roof, would also be good additional options.


Li / Io batteries already require the new EN 50604-1 standard!

Compare to the pedal lever drive >> www.freepatentsonline.com/DE4329814.html.

A step description - from testing (ISO 4210) to sales and trade - is not part of this study. 




Locally adapted fahrRAD productions could also be realized by emerging countries! In any case, all 10 innovations are available free of charge. A cheap alternative mobility, with the avoidance of fossil and road construction disadvantages, would certainly be welcomed and necessary there.



I am available for feedback, criticism and technical suggestions: >> thalhammerm@yahoo.de 



© by Michael Thalhammer (TubeWaySystems) - July 2013 - Technically updated, Vienna, 04.11.2021
thalhammerm@yahoo.de,  +43 19195724