During my stays in India, I realised that in long-term dry/hot conditions, wall insulation with a cooling effect through evaporator walls would make sense.
The production should be:
+ be self-buildable and in modular components -
+ thus be locally transferable.
+ All this can be done without a fan or pump.
Wall module frames would be covered in three different layers: A shiny silver or white PVC fabric tarpaulin is applied to the outside. 5 cm deeper, a 2 mm earth fleece is hooked into its frame. For moistening the fleece in the hot, dry months, a perforated water hose is installed above the fleece. These are commercially available as sprinkler hoses with a timer valve. For this purpose, this system draws from a water reservoir with a capacity of about 30 litres.
The inner visible wall (again at 5 cm intervals) is made of moisture-resistant, attractive decorative fabric. The desired circulation takes place via narrow air slits at the bottom, on the inner and outer wall. This fabric has an aluminium foil applied to the concealed inner side, which favours the reflection of the short-wave heat radiation and increases the evaporation taking place in the wall.
The intermediate wet fleece has a narrow slit at the top as a transition for the thermal flow, which begins independently in the morning when the outside temperature is hotter.
The inside visible wall (again at 5 cm intervals) is made of moisture-resistant, pleasing decorative fabric. The desired circulation can be regulated at the top and bottom via narrow air slits. The upward and downward flow now takes place around the wet fleece (which is left dry in the rainy season): on the one hand, upward and evaporating, between the wet fleece and the outer skin, and on the other hand, downward and cooling in the inner plane, between the fleece and the decorative fabric.
Also, fabric sheets for simple shelters should generally have a silver, reflective side on the outside and a dark, light-proof side on the inside.
The light sloping roof gets by with only two layers. These open out at the top into a warm-air-discharging chimney made of matt black sheet metal.
Several times a year, the inner fleece is to be exposed to the sun and then shaken out and placed again. Unhealthy germ development is prevented by cleaning all surfaces and parts.
In the lotus cloud, energy could be generated with solar electricity and solar-generated hot water (with a tank at the top of the hut). A biologically functioning small sewage treatment plant covered with mosquito netting is also recommended.
Because of the frequent flooding during the rainy season, houses in the climatically hot countries of these climatic zones are usually built on stilts. This means that the living space also has a lower, roofed area. To withstand occasional violent storms, the corner posts are fixed with several ground anchors.
These approaches should also be considered for further implementation by UNHCR and UNIDO.
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