Construction-technical stimulation for
Because of the unresolved environmental problems of cement production and when
mining the building sand, completely new approaches must be taken in the construction sector
In analogy to the functional principle of a thermos I suggest the construction of static load-bearing wall elements.
The vacuum foils used in space travel also replace the storage mass customary for buildings and all insulating material materials. In space, these films actually preserve much higher temperature differences than they do on Earth.
In the construction sector, terrestrial temperature differences can remain isolated for a long time, if - in sandwich modules - whose cavity is held in the wave-breaking nothing of a rough vacuum. The enclosed in the cavity vacuum allows the complete creation of well insulated buildings!
Before the construction manual follows, I would like to mention the other advantages of these vacuum modules:
# The load-bearing capacity of one covered with sheet metal* wall element, even for multi-storey buildings.
# In this way, it is possible to prepare in rational construction planning and to build resource-saving and cost-effective.
# Considerable energy-cost savings in winter heating or in the summer room cooling.
# For housing construction after war damage or after disasters and for the migration housing needs this approach allows a cheap and quickly buildable structure. Prefabricated, extremely lightweight components can be delivered in a space-saving stacking. They can be handled load-bearing and even grouted, depending on the format, from two to four people, even without a construction crane.
# By cutting open the elastomer joints, such a building is quickly dismantled. After that, it can be rebuilt elsewhere with the same kind of jointing. Also these substantially resistant buildings offer a high long-term benefit.
# Expensive later renovations, such as Plaster renovation by scaffolding, omitted in this construction. Also, there are never damp walls. Occasionally, a protective coating job is required.
# The walls are hardly flammable and protect against lightning, e-magnetic radiation** and possibly termite infestation. To the storm resistance of the buildings connections are sufficient to the deep-anchored point foundations or possibly to the building basement. The construction results in a high earthquake resistance. Furthermore, the walls provide a good noise protection and hardly transmitted solid-state sound for the residents.
# The transportable and lightweight modules with only ~ 15 kg / m² in their transom construction result in a self-supporting building statics, which grants the respective architectural design wide scope. On the surfaces of the buildings and the inner walls, you can apply any decorative weather and light resistant lacquered designs.
# If the façade surfaces are covered with PV foil, this results in a completely energy-self-sufficient building, whose power surplus even provides a charging station for e-mobility!
# U-values of 0.08 W / (m²K) are - also for the windows and doors - easily accessible.
# The long-term vacuum diffusion reduction can be readjusted via the modular valve.
# With light wood-beam staircases instead of massive concrete steps and wooden false ceilings, 'renewable' is the best building material. In addition, the wood provides the biologically beneficial earth radiation into the building.
# With this isolation method, applications on pipelines as well as industrial and transport containers are possible and useful.
# The biggest advantage, however, is the global CO² reduction, which can be achieved by a paradigm shift in the construction industry.
# This construction approach can already be implemented by medium-sized craft enterprises.
With regard to the state of the art:
Already similar imaginary and manufactured products of some manufacturers are offered on the Internet. These panels cost, due to the complex processes of their production, per m² up to 100.- €. But they offer no static function and are not tight in the long term or their vacuum can not be readjusted. Static wall modules are not yet evident on the market. However, windows are already available in vacuum design.
My approach published here is a license-free innovation and thus at the same time "state of the art" - ie an object that can no longer be patented.
How are these components manufactured?
The module frames are occupied on both sides with galvanized metal sheets or glass panes. The inside of the metal sheets are covered with aluminum foil laminated cardboard. The voids between the upstanding posts carry horizontal lines of one above the other corrugated cardboard strips which protrude into the wall depth. Each corrugated cardboard strip is left and right with its ends angled away attached to the posts.
Each corrugated cardboard strip contains a split bamboo rod of approximately 4 x 4 mm every ~16 cm. This is simply inserted into one of the wave arcs.
The cardboard lines form separate compartments with a parallel distance of ~16 cm. These compartments are split in height and depth with an additional diagonal cardboard insert (here without chopsticks) so that the remaining module air can only circulate thermally in tight triangular spaces. For further reflection, these cardboard strips are laminated with an aluminum foil. To reduce the heat transfer by infrared radiation, so-called Opacifiers can be introduced into the cardboard shafts. The additives may be iron oxide, carbon black or titanium oxide.
Jointly build wooden skeleton, cardboard strips and the split bamboo or simelar rods the external pressure, which will load after the construction direction on the air-evacuated module surfaces.
The well-dried stands, cross braces and horizontal woods are held in minimal contact with the sheet metal surfaces by means of 3 mm narrow triangular profiles made from split bamboo. This also minimizes thermal transfer there. Finally, each module receives a packet of desiccant (zeolite).
The module frames consist of 8 mm thick plywood sealed with zapon varnish - in the width of the respective wall thickness. A 12 mm wide recirculating rebate of the metal sheets is elastomerically conected to the frame edges of each module. A second fold on the inner edge forms, as an angle profile, a groove as a counter stop. The positive-elastomeric sheet metal groove / wood frame composite forms a permanently gas-tight sandwich unit.
Statically planned, about 8 cm thick walls, slender partitions and floor-supporting walls from ~ 12 cm are so produced. Flat roof and other roof forms as well as windows and doors can be produced in this technique. As a static load only fractions of common wall weights are to included in the calculations.
Finally, all modules are vacuumed with a rotary vane vacuum pump (~ 80 - 95% / 1 Pa, or about 0.01 millibar). The long-term vacuum diffusion reduction can be readjusted** to the modules via the ball valves. Re-pumping is controlled by the manometer and could also be done with a manual pump.
To use a Faraday protective cover, the modules are connected with metal bridges during grouting.
For fire protection, the module walls are also required to install gypsum plasterboard mounted behind on vertical counter battens. This ventilation provides via ventilation slots a passive thermals to the rooms.
For external facades offers e.g. http://www.sitekinsulation.de/feuerschutzplatten on.
Between window panes or entire VSG walls, a corresponding number of transparent or acrylic spacers are placed on their surface. Like the walls, the windows can also be readjusted via their ball valves. UV films can reflect the excess of solar UV radiation. Optionally, outside sunblinds can be adjusted to the desired temperature by the sensor.
Cables and other installations are laid in separate shafts.
Heat exchangers and a smal room heater ensure an economical well-being indoor climate.
Against the heating of the facade is also a black-shaded paint applied between the silvery primer and the exterior decorative color scheme.
Attempting to enter such a building without permission is no more difficult or easier than in a normal building, where a window or door is a weak point for entry. In addition, the ground floor facades are clad in the sense of fire protection.
What does a m² wall cost in this design?
2 m² lacquered, galvanized sheet metal, 0.6 mm 50, - €
3 m² aluminum-laminated corrugated cardboard 12, - €
2 lm squad + 1 lm plywood + elastomer ~ 14, - €
Working time of prefabrication per m² ~ 22, - €
- "- at the construction site in about 17.- €
1 m² Rigips Fire prodect panel 5.- €
in total about 120, - €
The builder's decision is likely to fall on these modules;
Solid construction costs twice as much per m²
(the product life cycle not yet included).
Global CO² emissions were 36,153 Mt in 2017. Air traffic was 523 MtCO² and shipping 656 MtCO². Cement world production caused 1,477 MtCO² (= 4,1%)!This is more than the output of air traffic with that of all shipping! Source: IPCC
With the certainly still rising costs for building sand is a turning point in our building practice unavoidable. A change from cement, sand, styrofoam and reinforcing steel to wood, sheet metal, glass and cardboard as well as applied PV films would be sustainable and overall highly desirable. Clay-fired bricks are not an unlimited building material.
Here are on offer my approaches to vacuum components and massive solar wall storage heaters - free from obstructive patents and licenses.
It is necessary to reduce the CO²-polluting cement production and the ecological consequences of the construction-sand-overexploitation.
The food chain of maritime life begins with the micro-diversity, which predominantly on sandy seabed has its basis!
Time is running out!
* For the temperature compensation, a sufficient expansion fold is applied to the facade panels at the edge of the module. Against the heating of the facade is also a black-shading paint applied between the silvery primer and the exterior decorative color scheme.
** The provision of digital and analogue signals/frequencies may require an external reciver, which will automatically connect us with the use of new media.
***Should a module implode, the inward vacuum force of 0.08 bar is released. The 2 x 4 tons of air pressure on each module m² would press the sheets together with a bang. For this purpose, sufficient tests are to be made.
The market surveillance for construction products is located at Österr. Institute of Construction Technology and this body awards the necessary surveillance sign-Austria - in Europe is it CE. The Building Physics Institute of Graz University of Technology would be responsible for certification in the field of insulation, fire protection, sound and suspension performance.
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With a technically similar approach, sunlit, massive outer walls are able to heat the rooms behind them with the stored heat radiation from free solar energy.
These walls are clad on the outside with glass and inside with sheet metal and form the basis for a vacuum-controlled heat storage. This installation can be done on almost any building as a retrofit.
During the day - at normal pressure - the wall mass heats behind the glass. In the evening, the outer façade automatically adjusts to the vacuum insulation that was kept up during the day towards the inside of the room.
Now, distributed throughout the night, continuous heat dissipation in the spaces behind it is possible.
A sunblind placed on the outside prevents overheating or undesired warming of the storage wall by means of a thermo-control.
Both approaches can already be implemented in medium-sized spengler and prefabricated house plants.
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I could not test both approaches because I can not afford the necessary capital myself.
Your experience would be useful in the cause, and I ask you to share it with me: email@example.com.
Please pass on the suggestions with the link www.tubewaysolar.at to those interested. THANK YOU
Copyright 2008, Graz, Austria - updated: Vienna, Okt. 2018
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The usage of rough vacuum inside of refrigerators and reefers
This idea is meant to be a suggestion for the production of cooling facilities.
The technical approach: In an air-tight case a pump reduces a little the pressure which helps keeping the stored food fresh. Tupperware-effect®.
Upon opening the specially designed door, the previously drained air can immediately stream in again to restore a normal level of pressure. This way, the door can be opened without any hindrance. A sensor or a button reactivates the pump, once the case is closed. The condensed water, which comes up with every opening, is channelled off by a drainage that in turn is sealed when the pressure starts dropping again.
© Michael Thalhammer, Baden bei Wien, 26.02.2013
- "L O T U S - CLOUD"
- for climatically hot countries
Due to frequent flooding during the rainy season, the dwellings of these climates are mostly built on stilts. The living room is thereby also a lower covered area given. To withstand occasional violent storms, the cornerstones are attached by means of ground anchors.
During my stay in India I realized that would at long-term dry / hot conditions wall insulation with cooling effect evaporator walls mind. The preparation should be cost-effective, feasible in DIY and module components - be - ie locally transportable:
Wall module frames were covered this in three differents layers: Outwardly a shiny silver or white PVC fabric covering is applied. 5 cm deep is a 2 mm thin Earth fleece to absorb water hooked into the frame. For the flow-wetting in the hot and dry months a perforated water hose is installed above on the fleece. When sprinkler hose with valve timing these are commercially available.
The inside view wall (back to 5 cm distance) is also made moist resistant, pleasing decorative fabric. Top and bottom can be adjusted the desired circulation over narrow louvers. The upward as downward flow is now to the wet (in the rainy season dry unprocessed) fleece: down to one, up and evaporating, between the fleece and the outer skin, and on the other and a cooling in the inner level, between the wet fleece and the decorative fabric.
The slight sloping roof is made with only two layers. These lead upwards into a hot-air-discharging fireplace made of matt black metal.
+ All this works without fan or pump.
Several times a year the internal fleece is to be exposed to the sun and shaken afterwards and placed again. By cleaning all surfaces and parts of unhealthy germs development is prevented.
In the Lotus cloud be taxed with solar power and solar-generated hot water generate (with tank on top of the hut) energy. Also, a biologically operating small treatment plant is recommended.
See also my page www.tubewaysolar.at similar construction and transport concepts.
©: Michael Thalhammer, Mumbai, Dezember 2001 - aktualisiert, Wien 3.3.2016