Construction-technical stimulation for
Because of the unresolved environmental problems of cement production and when mining the building sand, completely new
approaches must be taken in the construction sector
In analogy to the functional principle of a thermos I suggest the construction of static load-bearing wall elements.
The vacuum foils used in space travel also replace the storage mass customary for buildings and all insulating material materials. In space, these films actually preserve much higher temperature differences than they do on Earth.
Here, on earth, a negative pressure trapped in modules enables optimal building insulation.
Before the construction manual follows, I would like to mention the other advantages of these vacuum modules:
# The load-bearing capacity of a panel clad with sheet metal *, even for multi-storey buildings.
# In rational construction planning and using prefabricated parts, construction is quick, resource-saving and cost-effective.
# The lightweight components can be delivered in a space-saving stacking and are handled without a crane ( for example in the format 1,5 x 2,5 m) handled by two people and further grouted using constraction elastomers.
# Expensive later renovations, such as Plastering renovations by scaffolding, omitted in this construction. Also, there are never damp walls.
# The transportable and lightweight modules with only ~ 15 kg / m² in their transom construction result in a self-supporting building statics, which grants the respective architectural design wide scope. On the surfaces of the buildings and the inner room walls, you can apply any decorative weather- and lightfast varnished designs.
# If the façade surfaces are covered with PV foil, this results in a completely energy-self-sufficient building, whose power surplus even co-provides the charging station for e-mobility!
# With light wood-beam staircases and wooden false ceilings instead of solid concrete steps, the 'renewable' material is the best building material. In addition, the wood provides the biologically beneficial earth radiation into the building. Only their placement requires a truck-crane.
# Significant energy cost savings when winter heating or in the summer room cooling.
# The walls do not produce any accumulating storage masses and reduce summer heat build-up in the city area. *
# By cutting the elastomeric joints, such a building is quickly restructured. After that, it can be rebuilt elsewhere with the same kind of jointing. Also these substantially resistant buildings offer a high long-term benefit.
# The walls are non-flammable, protect against lightning, e-magnetic radiation ** and possibly against termite infestation. For the storm resistance of the buildings connections are sufficient to the deep-anchored point foundations or with a building basement. The construction results in a high earthquake resistance. Furthermore, the walls provide perfect noise protection and hardly transmit solid-state sound to the residents.
# For residential construction, after war damage or catastrophes and for the migration housing needs, this approach allows a cheap and quickly buildable structure.
# The long-term vacuum diffusion reduction can be readjusted via the modular valve.
# With this isolation method, applications on pipelines as well as industrial and transport containers are possible and useful.
# This construction approach can be implemented by plumbers and prefab companies.
# The biggest advantage, however, is the global CO² reduction, which can and will be achieved through the onset of paradigm shifts in the construction industry - building sand will simply be too expensive in the future.
With regard to the state of the art:
Already similar imaginary and manufactured products of some manufacturers are offered on the Internet. These panels cost, due to the complex processes of their production, per m² up to 100.- €. But they offer no static function and are not tight in the long term or their vacuum can not be readjusted. Static wall modules are not yet evident on the market. However, windows are already available in vacuum design.
My approach published here is a license-free innovation and thus at the same time "state of the art" - ie an object that can no longer be patented.
How are these components manufactured?
The module frames are occupied on both sides with galvanized metal sheets or glass panes. The inside of the metal sheets are covered with aluminum foil laminated blak cardboard. The voids between the upstanding posts carry horizontal lines of one above the other corrugated cardboard strips which protrude into the wall depth. Each cardboard strip is tacked with its ends to the flanks of the standing woods.
The strips contain a 3 x 3 mm thick bamboo spacers (or similar wood) every 16 cm - they are simply inserted into one of the corrugated board sheets and fix the distance between the two sheets.
The cardboard lines form separate compartments with a parallel distance of ~16 cm. These compartments are split in height and depth with an additional diagonal cardboard insert (here without chopsticks) so that the remaining module air can only circulate thermally in tight triangular spaces. For further reflection, these cardboard strips are laminated with an aluminum foil.
Jointly build wooden skeleton, cardboard strips and the split bamboo or simelar rods the external pressure, which will load after the construction direction on the air-evacuated module surfaces.
The well-dried edge-profile hardwood stands store between the sheet metal surfaces so, that only one diagonal longitudinal edge comes in minimal contact with the two sheet metal surfaces. So there is no appreciable thermal transfer here. Finally, each module receives a packet of desiccant (zeolite).
The module frame consists of 16 mm thick plywood sealed with zapon varnish. The frame is mitred at the four corners. It lies on a 12 mm wide sheet metal edge. With this fold he is all around positively and elastomeric connected and glued. The four frame inner surfaces are milled in the rebate area to the plywood, so that the distance attitude is maintained in the rough vacuum mode.
Thus, a permanently gas-tight sandwich component is formed. Each module is factory provided with half negative pressure.
Static, ~ 8 cm thick walls, and ~ 4 cm slender partition walls and floor-bearing walls from ~ 12 cm can be produced. Flat roof and other roof forms as well as windows and doors can be produced in this technique. As a static load only fractions of common wall weights are to included in the calculations.
Finally, all modules are vacuumed with a rotary vane vacuum pump (~ 80 - 95% of the air is sucked off). The long-term vacuum diffusion reduction can be readjusted** to the modules via the ball valves. Re-pumping is controlled by the manometer and could also be done with a manual pump.
As Faraday building protection, the modules are connected with metal bridges.
For fire protection, the module walls are additionally applied to vertical U-profiles, back-mounted plasterboard. Upper and lower vents provide passive thermal insulation to the rooms.
On ground floor exterior facades, for example, http://www.sitekinsulation.de/fire protection plates.
Between window panes or entire VSG walls, a corresponding number of transparent or acrylic spacers are placed on their surface. These are also readjustable via a ball valve. A surplus of UV radiation could reflect UV films or outside sunblinds regulated autosensory to the desired temperature.
Cables and other installations are laid in separate shafts.
Heat exchangers and a smal room heater ensure an economical well-being indoor climate.
Against the heating of the facade is also a black-shaded paint applied between the silvery primer and the exterior decorative color scheme.
Attempting to enter such a building without permission is no more difficult or easier than in a normal building, where a window or door is a weak point for entry. In addition, the ground floor facades are clad in the sense of fire protection.
* Against the heating comes the outer panel a shadowing black paint, applied between the silvery zinc coating and the outer decorative color scheme. For the temperature compensation, a sufficient expansion fold is impressed on the facade panels at the edge of the module.
** The switching of digital and analog signals / frequencies requires an externally placed receiver, which combines our media use.
*** Should a module implode, the inward vacuum force will be released. The air pressure would press the sheets together with a bang.
What does a m² wall cost in this design?
2 m² lacquered, galvanized sheet metal, 0.6 mm 50, - €
3 m² aluminum-laminated corrugated cardboard 12, - €
2 lm squad + 1 lm plywood + elastomer ~ 14, - €
Working time of prefabrication per m² ~ 22, - €
- "- at the construction site in about 17.- €
1 m² Rigips Fire prodect panel 5.- €
in total about 120, - €
This calculation is valid under the proven conditions of series productions, without the pricing with expected profit.
The decision of the builders is therefore likely to fall more often on these modules; Solid construction Costs twice or even several times per m² (not including the product life cycle).
Source: IPCC - Accordingly, cement production emits more CO² such as air traffic and shipping combined!
With the shure rising costs of building land inevitably comes a turn of our construction practice. Switching from cement, sand, polystyrene and reinforcing steel to wood, sheet metal, glass and cardboard as well as to applied PV films is sustainable and absolutely desirable. Vacuum wall modules are in the design phase as well as the use phase, foreseeable energy and resource savers! Also, their recycling makes little effort. For scalability, R + D, R + D, etc., I could not give consistent values, since I am not familiar with business administration..
It is necessary to reduce the CO²-polluting cement production and the ecological consequences of the construction-land-overexploitation. The food chain of maritime life begins with the micro-diversity, which is mainly based on sandy seabeds!
Market surveillance for construction products lies with the respective authorities. Building physics institutes are responsible for appropriate certification in the field of insulation, fire protection, sound and suspension performance.
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With a technically similar approach, sunlit, massive outer walls are able to heat the rooms behind them with the stored heat radiation from free solar energy.
These walls are clad on the outside with glass and inside with sheet metal and form the basis for a vacuum-controlled heat storage. This installation can be done on almost any building as a retrofit.
During the day - at normal pressure - the wall mass heats behind the glass. In the evening, the outer façade automatically adjusts to the vacuum insulation that was kept up during the day towards the inside of the room.
Now, distributed throughout the night, continuous heat dissipation in the spaces behind it is possible.
A sunblind placed on the outside prevents overheating or undesired warming of the storage wall by means of a thermo-control.
Both approaches can already be implemented in medium-sized spengler and prefabricated house plants.
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I could not test both approaches because I can not afford the necessary capital myself.
Your experience would be useful in the cause, and I ask you to share it with me: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Please pass on the suggestions with the link www.tubewaysolar.at to those interested. THANK YOU
Copyright 2008, Graz, Austria - updated: Vienna, Okt. 2018
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The usage of rough vacuum inside of refrigerators and reefers
This idea is meant to be a suggestion for the production of cooling facilities.
The technical approach: In an air-tight case a pump reduces a little the pressure which helps keeping the stored food fresh. Tupperware-effect®.
Upon opening the specially designed door, the previously drained air can immediately stream in again to restore a normal level of pressure. This way, the door can be opened without any hindrance. A sensor or a button reactivates the pump, once the case is closed. The condensed water, which comes up with every opening, is channelled off by a drainage that in turn is sealed when the pressure starts dropping again.
© Michael Thalhammer, Baden bei Wien, 26.02.2013
- "L O T U S - CLOUD"
- for climatically hot countries
Due to frequent flooding during the rainy season, the dwellings of these climates are mostly built on stilts. The living room is thereby also a lower covered area given. To withstand occasional violent storms, the cornerstones are attached by means of ground anchors.
During my stay in India I realized that would at long-term dry / hot conditions wall insulation with cooling effect evaporator walls mind. The preparation should be cost-effective, feasible in DIY and module components - be - ie locally transportable:
Wall module frames were covered this in three differents layers: Outwardly a shiny silver or white PVC fabric covering is applied. 5 cm deep is a 2 mm thin Earth fleece to absorb water hooked into the frame. For the flow-wetting in the hot and dry months a perforated water hose is installed above on the fleece. When sprinkler hose with valve timing these are commercially available.
The inside view wall (back to 5 cm distance) is also made moist resistant, pleasing decorative fabric. Top and bottom can be adjusted the desired circulation over narrow louvers. The upward as downward flow is now to the wet (in the rainy season dry unprocessed) fleece: down to one, up and evaporating, between the fleece and the outer skin, and on the other and a cooling in the inner level, between the wet fleece and the decorative fabric.
The slight sloping roof is made with only two layers. These lead upwards into a hot-air-discharging fireplace made of matt black metal.
+ All this works without fan or pump.
Several times a year the internal fleece is to be exposed to the sun and shaken afterwards and placed again. By cleaning all surfaces and parts of unhealthy germs development is prevented.
In the Lotus cloud be taxed with solar power and solar-generated hot water generate (with tank on top of the hut) energy. Also, a biologically operating small treatment plant is recommended.
See also my page www.tubewaysolar.at similar construction and transport concepts.
©: Michael Thalhammer, Mumbai, Dezember 2001 - aktualisiert, Wien 3.3.2016