Structural engineering suggestion for VAKUUM wall modules
Because of the insoluble environmental problems in cement production and the mining of building sand, completely new approaches must be taken in the construction sector
My approach is the construction of statically stable wall elements*. The working principle of a thermos flask leaves coffee hot until the next day - only by means of two wafer-thin silver glasses and a coarse vacuum. Different wavelengths result in a physically insurmountable barrier.
Thin MLI films, which are used in space travel under vacuum, also replace the storage mass and all insulating materials commonly used in buildings. In space, these films actually protect against much higher temperature differences than those found on earth.
Here on earth, a vacuum enclosed in modules and reflective films enable optimal building insulation.
* The vacuum vessel was used by the chemist James Dewar in calorimetric experiments as early as 1874.  These vessels, now called Dewar vessels, were made of metal.  Only later were they made of glass flasks placed inside each other. To reduce the heat radiation Dewar mirrored the inner surfaces of the glass vessels (Wikipedia).
In admiration of his inventive achievement, it fell to me to design their extension, towards thermal building elements. The "coincidence" is always (at night while sleeping) like a gift that comes down from ABOVE - as a gift to mankind. Just as it was a part of my consideration of the principle of a pneumatic tube system for its application to TubeWaySolar.
Other principles were instilled in us from deep DOWN; such as the use of uranium, dynamite or the motorized combustion of fossil fuels. They brought about unspeakable masses of war suffering or the ingloriously ruined heating of the climate by CO2.
Let us therefore quickly seize effective opportunities - which, by means of technical alternatives, ensure a timely reversal and enable further generations to make a living.
Before the building description follows, I would like to mention the advantages of this construction method:
# These modules can be used anywhere in the world and in any climatic condition; and they can be produced quickly anywhere.
# In rational building planning, prefabricated parts are used to build in a resource-saving, fast and cost-effective manner.
# The transportable and lightweight modules with only ~ 15 to 25 kg/m² result in a self-supporting building statics in their timber-frame construction, which allows great scope for the respective architectural design. Any decorative design can be applied to the facades as well as the interior walls.
# The lightweight construction elements can be delivered in space-saving stacks and are handled by two people without a construction crane and without scaffolding (e.g. in the format 1.5 x 2.5 m) and further grouted using construction elastomers.
# The walls are non-combustible, protect against lightning, e-magnetic radiation** and, if necessary, against termite infestation. For the storm resistance of the buildings, connections to point foundations or the building basement are sufficient. Furthermore, the walls offer perfect noise protection and transmit hardly any solid body sound to the residents.
# The load-bearing capacity of a wall element clad with sheet metal, even for multi-storey buildings.
# Expensive later renovations, such as plaster renewal or polystyrene application using scaffolding, are not necessary with this construction method. There are also never damp walls.
# If the facade surfaces are covered with PV-foil, this results in a completely energy self-sufficient building, whose excess electricity can also serve the charging station for e-mobility!
# Considerable energy cost savings for winter heating or summer room cooling.
# With light wooden stairs instead of solid concrete stairs, as well as wooden false ceilings, 'renewable' is also the better building material. Only for their placement a working platform or a construction lift is needed during construction.
# The walls do not produce heating storage masses; this reduces the summery urban heat accumulation*.
# A high earthquake resistance results from the construction method, with its three centimetre wide elastomeric joints.
# For new housing construction, after war damage or catastrophes and for migration housing needs, this approach allows for inexpensive and quick reconstruction.
# By cutting the elastomeric joints, such a building can also be quickly restructured. It can then be rebuilt elsewhere with the same type of jointing. These substantially durable buildings also offer a high long-term benefit.
# The long-term vacuum reduction resulting from diffusion can be readjusted by means of a rotary vane pump, via the module valve.
# With this insulation method, applications on pipelines and industrial and transport containers are also possible.
# This constructional approach can be implemented by plumbers and prefabricated companies, as well as in industrialised full automation.
# The biggest advantage, however, is the global CO² reduction, which can and will be achieved by the beginning paradigm shift in the construction industry. Building sand will simply be too expensive in the future!
To the state of the art:
There are already similar products of some manufacturers on the Internet. These VIP panels cost, by the complex processes of their production, per m² up to 100.- €! In the long run, they are not tight or their vacuum cannot be readjusted, and above all, they do not offer a static function.
Statically load-bearing wall modules are not evident on the market so far! However, window panes are already available in vacuum design.
My approach published here is a license-free innovation and therefore "state of the art".
How are these components manufactured?
The module frames are covered on both sides with galvanized sheet metal or glass panes. The inside of the sheets and their two graphite black boxes are covered with together for aluminium foils. The statically planned wooden framework is installed between the two metal sheets.
Slim partition walls as well as walls supporting several storeys can be produced with this vacuum technology. Statically, only fractions of the usual solid wall loads result. For multi-storey buildings, the lower floors consist of appropriately dimensioned standing beams. These can be placed in variable close rows to one another.
Flat roofs and other roof shapes as well as windows and doors can also be constructed in this way.
Using the example of a Bungalov, the modules are created as follows*:
The empty spaces between the standing timbers contain horizontal corrugated cardboard compartments reaching into the depth of the wall. These cardboard strips are tacked with their ends to the flanks of the standing timbers.
The cardboard strips carry (approximately every 15 cm) a 6 x 6 mm spacer made of bamboo or similar wood - they are simply stuck to the corrugated cardboard strips. The sticks hold the distance between the two sheets and distribute the external pressure load.
The corrugated cardboard rows form separate compartments one above the other, with a parallel distance of about 15 cm. The compartments are divided in two in height and depth with an additional diagonal cardboard insert (here without sticks), so that the residual air can only circulate thermally in narrow triangular spaces.
The well-dried, approx. 8 x 8 cm thick wooden stands are stored between the sheet metal surfaces in such a way that only one diagonal longitudinal edge comes into minimal contact with each of the two sheet metal surfaces. This means that no significant thermal transfer occurs at the diagonal longitudinal edges. On the room side, 6 mm thick plywood panels sealed with Zapon lacquer can be used instead of sheet metal.
Before the elastomeric sealing, a package of drying agent (zeolite) is added to each module.
For temperature equalisation, an expansion seam must be embossed into the façade sheets near the module edge.
A black primer is also applied to the outer sheet on its silvery zinc coating to prevent solar heating. After the UV light curing of the primer, the desired decor is applied, made of extremely durable two-component aircraft paint (e.g. from AkzoNobel) which is resistant to all weather conditions. Most of the production steps in module manufacturing can also be carried out by robot arms and the subsequent erection without construction crane and without scaffolding.
The module frame consists of ~16 mm thick plywood. The frame is interlocked at the four corners. It is connected all around with the 12 mm wide sheet-metal seam edge via a groove and glued with elastomer. This groove runs along both sides of the frame edges and enables a secure and permanently gas-tight sealing of the sandwich element. It is delivered from the factory with half negative pressure. Most production steps of larger series can also be carried out by robot arms.
For Faraday building protection, the modules are connected on the outside with metal bridges** during construction.
After construction, all module fields are provided with an atmospherically height-dependent negative pressure by means of a rotary vane vacuum pump. About 95% of the air is sucked out of the modules via their ball valve. The reduction in vacuum that occurs over the years through diffusion can thus be readjusted***.
Cables and other installations are laid in separate shafts.
A corresponding number of transparent acrylic spacers are placed between window panes or full-surface glass elements - distributed over their surface. These surfaces can also be readjusted via a ball valve. An excess of UV radiation could be reflected by UV/IR foils, or sun blinds placed outside regulate the desired temperature by autosensor.
With a solar-thermal storage heating and fresh air via heat exchanger, an economical indoor climate is ensured in winter.
>> So you can build & live in a sustainable way! <<
For fire protection, the module walls are additionally fitted with rear-ventilated plasterboard panels attached to vertical U-profiles. Passive thermal insulation is provided to the rooms via upper and lower slits. For ground floor external facades, http://www.sitekinsulation.de/feuerschutzplatten is an example.
* Here is an even simpler design with lightweight wall modules framed in wood consist of two 15mm OSB boards, with 4x4 cm thick squared timbers installed at a parallel distance of 20 cm inside. These are only in diagonal longitudinal edge contact with the boards and therefore do not form a thermal bridge. This panel lining is protected on the room and outside with primer, dispersion in the desired decor and gas-tight zapon lacquer. In the module the panels are covered with a heat-reflecting aluminium foil layer. A ball valve evacuates ~ 95% of the internal air by pump. The result is a wall that is only 8.6 cm thick, but still capable of bearing loads and highly insulating with vacuum, which can be readjusted during diffusion. See to the City-ASYL button...
* Attempting to penetrate such a building without permission is no heavier or easier than in a normal building, where a window or door is a weak point for entry.
** The switching of digital and analog signals / frequencies requires an externally placed receiver, which conveys our use of media.
*** Should a module implode, the vacuum force directed to the inside is released. The air pressure would press the sheets together with a bang. One cubic metre of air weighs 1.3 kg and thus 7 - 10 tons of air pressure, depending on the height, weigh on an evacuated module-m².
What does a m² wall in this design cost?
2 m² painted, galvanised sheet metal, 0.7 mm 50.- €
3 m² aluminium-laminated corrugated board 12,- €
2 lm relay + 1 lm plywood + elastomer ~ 14,- €
Working time of prefabrication per m² ~ 22,- €
- " - at the construction site in about 17.- €
1m² sheetrock fire protection plate 5.- €
in total about 120,- €
This estimate is based on series production, excluding pricing at the expected profit.
The decision of the building owners is therefore likely to fall more and more often on these modules; solid construction costs twice or even several times as much per m² (not counting the product life cycle with demolition costs).
Market surveillance for building products is the responsibility of the respective authorities; building physics institutes are responsible for the corresponding certification in the areas of insulation, fire protection, sound insulation and structural integrity.
Source IPCC / Cement production emits more CO² than air traffic and shipping together.
With the certainly increasing costs for building sand, a turnaround in our construction engineering practice is inevitable. A change from cement, sand, polystyrene and reinforcing steel - to wood, sheet metal and glass as well as to applied PV films is sustainable, future-proof and desirable.
Vacuum wall modules are foreseeable energy and resource savers in the construction phase as well as in the utilisation phase! Their recycling also requires little effort. For scalability, R+D, R+D etc. I cannot give any values, because I am not familiar with business administration.
Furthermore, there is an urgent need to reduce the CO²-polluting cement production and the ecological consequences of over-exploitation of building sand. The food chain of maritime life begins with micro-diversity, which is mainly based on sandy sea beds!
See too my site: wirundunserklima.jimdo
See too Video:
Copyright 2008, Graz, Austria - updated, Vienna, October 2019
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With a technically similar approach, sunlit, solid exterior walls are able to heat the rooms behind them with the stored thermal radiation from free solar energy.
These walls are clad with glass on the outside and sheet metal on the inside, thus providing the basis for vacuum-controlled heat storage. This installation can be carried out on almost any building, even in retrospective upgrading.
During the day - at normal pressure - the wall mass behind the glass heats up. In the evening, the outer façade becomes the vacuum insulation that was upright on the inside of the room during the day by means of automatic control.
Now a continuous heat radiation distributed over the night into the rooms behind is possible.
A sun blind placed outside prevents overheating or undesired heating of the storage wall by autosensory control.
Both constructional approaches could be implemented by medium-sized craft enterprises.
I could not test both approaches because of the necessary capital. Your experience would be useful in this matter, and so I ask you to share it with me if necessary: email@example.com.
Please forward these suggestions to interested parties with the link www.tubewaysolar.at. THANK YOU
In the sense of the fulfilment of our SDGs !
Copyright 2008, Graz, Austria - updated, Vienna, October 2019 - Michael Thalhammer