Construction-technical stimulation for
Because of the unresolved environmental problems of cement production and when mining the building sand, completely new
approaches must be taken in the construction sector
In analogy to the functional principle of a thermos I suggest the construction of static load-bearing wall elements. Only by means of two wafer-thin silvery glasses and a little vacuum does the coffee stay hot until the next day, because the different wavelengths represent a physically insurmountable wall to each other.
The thin MLI foils used in space travel under vacuum also replace the storage mass and all insulating materials used in buildings. In space, these films actually preserve much higher temperature differences than they do on Earth.
Here on earth, a negative pressure trapped in modules and reflective foils enable optimum insulation of the building.
Before the construction manual follows, I would like to mention the other advantages of these vacuum modules:
# This construction method is suitable worldwide and for every climatic situation; and it can be implemented quickly anywhere.
# In rational construction planning and using prefabricated parts, construction is quick, resource-saving and cost-effective.
# The lightweight components can be delivered in a space-saving stacking and are handled without a crane ( for example in the format 1,5 x 2,5 m) handled by two people and further grouted using constraction elastomers.
# The load-bearing capacity of a panel clad with sheet metal *, even for multi-storey buildings.
# Expensive later renovations, such as Plastering renovations by scaffolding, omitted in this construction. Also, there are never damp walls.
# The transportable and lightweight modules with only ~ 15 kg / m² in their transom construction result in a self-supporting building statics, which grants the respective architectural design wide scope. On the surfaces of the buildings and the inner room walls, you can apply any decorative weather- and lightfast varnished designs.
# If the façade surfaces are covered with PV foil, this results in a completely energy-self-sufficient building, whose power surplus even co-provides the charging station for e-mobility!
# With light wood-beam staircases and wooden false ceilings instead of solid concrete steps, the 'renewable' material is the best building material. Only their placement during construction requires a work platform or a crane truck.
# Significant energy cost savings when winter heating or in the summer room cooling.
# The walls do not produce any accumulating storage masses and reduce summer heat build-up in the city area. *
# By cutting the elastomeric joints, such a building is quickly restructured. After that, it can be rebuilt elsewhere with the same kind of jointing. Also these substantially resistant buildings offer a high long-term benefit.
# A high earthquake security results from the construction, with its three centimeters of soft elastomer joints.
# The walls are non-flammable, protect against lightning, e-magnetic radiation ** and possibly against termite infestation. For the storm resistance of the buildings connections are sufficient to the deep-anchored point foundations or with a building basement. Furthermore, the walls provide perfect noise protection and hardly transmit solid-state sound to the residents.
# For new residential construction, after war damage or catastrophes and for the migration housing needs, this approach enables a cheap and quick reconstruction.
# The long-term vacuum diffusion reduction can be readjusted via the modular valve.
# With this isolation method, applications on pipelines as well as industrial and transport containers are possible and useful.
# This construction approach can be implemented by plumbers and prefab companies as well as fully automated.
# The biggest advantage, however, is the global CO² reduction, which can and will be achieved through the onset of paradigm shifts in the construction industry - building sand will simply be too expensive in the future.
With regard to the state of the art:
Already similar imaginary and manufactured products of some manufacturers are offered on the Internet. These panels cost, due to the complex processes of their production, per m² up to 100.- €. But they offer no static function and are not tight in the long term or their vacuum can not be readjusted. Static wall modules are not yet evident on the market. However, windows are already available in vacuum design.
My approach published here is a license-free innovation and thus at the same time "state of the art" - ie an object that can no longer be patented.
How are these components manufactured?
The module frames are occupied on both sides with galvanized metal sheets or glass panes. The inside of the sheets and their graphite black infrared blocker cardboard are covered with aluminum foil. The voids between the upstanding posts carry horizontal lines of one above the other corrugated cardboard strips which protrude into the wall depth. Each cardboard strip is tacked with its ends to the flanks of the standing beams.
The cardboard strips hold in themselves (about every 14 cm) a 6 x 6 mm strong distance holder made of bamboo or similar wood - they are simply glued to the corrugated sheets. They distribute the external pressure load and keep the distance between the two sheets.
The cardboard lines form separate compartments with a parallel distance of ~14 cm. These compartments are split in height and depth with an additional diagonal cardboard insert (here without chopsticks) so that the remaining module air can only circulate thermally in tight triangular spaces. For further reflection, these cardboard strips are laminated with an aluminum foil.
Jointly build wooden skeleton, cardboard strips and the split bamboo or simelar rods the external pressure, which will load after the construction direction on the air-evacuated module surfaces.
The well-dried edge-profile wood standing beams between the sheet metal surfaces so, that only one diagonal longitudinal edge comes in minimal contact with the two sheet metal surfaces. So there is no appreciable thermal transfer here. Finally, each module receives a packet of desiccant (zeolite).
The module frame consists of 16 mm thick plywood sealed with Zaponlack. The frame is interlocked at the four corners. It is connected to the 12 mm wide sheet metal edge all around with a positive fit and glued elastomerically. The groove runs along the edges of the frame on both sides and offers a secure seal in rough vacuum operation. A permanently gas-tight sandwich component is thus formed, which is supplied with half a vacuum at the factory.
Static, ~ 8 cm thick walls, and ~ 4 cm slender partition walls and floor-bearing walls from ~ 12 cm can be produced. As a static load only fractions of common wall weights are to included in the calculations. For multi-storey buildings, the standing beams on the lower floors are made of hardwood. Flat roof and other roof forms as well as windows and doors can be produced in this technique.
Finally, all modules are vacuumed with a rotary vane vacuum pump (~ 80 - 95% of the air is sucked off). The long-term vacuum diffusion reduction can be readjusted** to the modules via the ball valves. Re-pumping is controlled by the manometer and could also be done with a manual pump.
As Faraday building protection, the modules are connected with metal bridges.
For fire protection, the module walls are additionally applied to vertical U-profiles, back-mounted plasterboard. Upper and lower vents provide passive thermal insulation to the rooms.
On ground floor exterior facades, for example, http://www.sitekinsulation.de/fire protection plates .
Most production steps of larger series can also be done by robotic arms.
Between window panes or entire VSG walls, a corresponding number of transparent or acrylic spacers are placed on their surface. These are also readjustable via a ball valve. A surplus of UV radiation could reflect UV films or outside sunblinds regulated autosensory to the desired temperature.
With a solar-thermal heating plus storage and fresh air via heat exchanger is it providing for an economic climate in winter. This would also be sustainable living for sustainable building.
Cables and other installations are laid in separate shafts.
Against the heating of the facade is also a black-shaded paint, applied between the silvery primer and the exterior decorative color scheme, made of aircraft paint.
Attempting to enter such a building without permission is no more difficult or easier than in a normal building, where a window or door is a weak point for entry. In addition, the ground floor facades are clad in the sense of fire protection.
* For the temperature compensation, a sufficient expansion fold is impressed on the facade panels near at the edge of the module.
** The switching of digital and analog signals / frequencies requires an externally placed receiver, which combines our media use.
*** Should a module implode, the inward vacuum force will be released. The air pressure would press the sheets together with a bang. One cubic meter of air weighs 1.3 kg and so on an evacuated module m², height-dependent 7 - 10 tons of air pressure are applied.
What does a m² wall cost in this design?
2 m² lacquered, galvanized sheet metal, 0.6 mm 50, - €
3 m² aluminum-laminated corrugated cardboard 12, - €
2 lm squad + 1 lm plywood + elastomer ~ 14, - €
Working time of prefabrication per m² ~ 22, - €
- "- at the construction site in about 17.- €
1 m² Rigips Fire prodect panel 5.- €
in total about 120, - €
This calculation is valid under the proven conditions of series productions, without the pricing with expected profit.
The decision of the builders is therefore likely to fall more often on these modules; Solid construction Costs twice or even several times per m² (not including the product life cycle).
Source: IPCC - Accordingly, cement production emits more CO² such as air traffic and shipping combined!
With the shure rising costs of building land inevitably comes a turn of our construction practice. Switching from cement, sand, polystyrene and reinforcing steel to wood, sheet metal, glass and cardboard as well as to applied PV films is sustainable and absolutely desirable.
Vacuum wall modules are in the design phase as well as the use phase, foreseeable energy and resource savers! Also, their recycling makes little effort. For scalability, R + D, F + E, etc., I could not give consistent values, since I am not familiar with business administration..
It is necessary to reduce the CO²-polluting cement production and the ecological consequences of the construction-land-overexploitation. The food chain of maritime life begins with the micro-diversity, which is mainly based on sandy seabeds!
Market surveillance for construction products lies with the respective authorities. Building physics institutes are responsible for appropriate certification in the field of insulation, fire protection, sound and suspension performance.
At best, these approaches should also be considered before UNHCR and UNIDO for further implementation.
Copyright 2008, Graz, Austria - aktualisiert, Wien, Oktober 2019
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Part 2: solar wall heating
With a technically similar approach, sunlit, massive outer walls are able to heat the rooms behind them with the stored heat radiation from free solar energy.
These walls are clad on the outside with glass and inside with sheet metal and form the basis for a vacuum-controlled heat storage. This installation can be done on almost any building as a retrofit.
During the day - at normal pressure - the wall mass heats behind the glass. In the evening, the outer façade automatically adjusts to the vacuum insulation that was kept up during the day towards the inside of the room.
Now, distributed throughout the night, continuous heat dissipation in the spaces behind it is possible.
A sunblind placed on the outside prevents overheating or undesired warming of the storage wall by means of a thermo-control.
Both approaches can already be implemented in medium-sized spengler and prefabricated house plants.
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I could not test both approaches because I can not afford the necessary capital myself.
Your experience would be useful in the cause, and I ask you to share it with me: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Please pass on the suggestions with the link www.tubewaysolar.at to those interested. THANK YOU
Copyright 2008, Graz, Austria - updated: Vienna, Okt. 2018
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Constructional approach - "L O T U S - CLOUD" - for climatically hot countries
Due to frequent flooding during the rainy season, the dwellings of these climates are mostly built on stilts. The living room is thereby also a lower covered area given. To withstand occasional violent storms, the cornerstones are attached by means of ground anchors.
During my stay in India I realized that would at long-term dry / hot conditions wall insulation with cooling effect evaporator walls mind. The preparation should be cost-effective, feasible in DIY and module components - be - ie locally transportable:
Wall module frames were covered this in three differents layers: Outwardly a shiny silver or white PVC fabric covering is applied. 5 cm deep is a 2 mm thin Earth fleece to absorb water hooked into the frame. For the flow-wetting in the hot and dry months a perforated water hose is installed above on the fleece. When sprinkler hose with valve timing these are commercially available.
The inside view wall (back to 5 cm distance) is also made moist resistant, pleasing decorative fabric. Top and bottom can be adjusted the desired circulation over narrow louvers. The upward as downward flow is now to the wet (in the rainy season dry unprocessed) fleece: down to one, up and evaporating, between the fleece and the outer skin, and on the other and a cooling in the inner level, between the wet fleece and the decorative fabric.
The slight sloping roof is made with only two layers. These lead upwards into a hot-air-discharging fireplace made of matt black metal.
+ All this works without fan or pump.
Several times a year the internal fleece is to be exposed to the sun and shaken afterwards and placed again. By cleaning all surfaces and parts of unhealthy germs development is prevented.
In the Lotus cloud be taxed with solar power and solar-generated hot water generate (with tank on top of the hut) energy. Also, a biologically operating small treatment plant is recommended.
©: Michael Thalhammer, Mumbai, Dezember 2001 - aktualisiert, Wien 3.3.2016